Antibody

Antibody

Peptic Ulcer Helicobacter Pylori – Breath And Antibody Blood Tests

Posted on June 9, 2018 in Uncategorized

Like the tissue test, the urea breath test makes use of the fact that H. Pylori secretes urease, which converts urea into ammonia, producing carbon dioxide as it does so. You are asked to eat nothing for 12 hours before a breath test and are then given a drink containing urea to which a tiny amount of perfectly safe radiation has been added. Thirty minutes later, a small breath sample is collected. If H. pylori is present in your stomach, the urea is converted into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which is then absorbed and excreted in your breath, along with a tiny amount of radioactivity. This can then be measured With a special machine in the hospital laboratory.

The advantage of the breath test is that it is very straightforward and takes a very short amount of time. Like the biopsy urease test, it is very accurate and confirms that you have active H. pylori infection present at the dine of the test. This also means that, if necessary, the breath test can be performed repeatedly to check whether the bacteria have been eradicated after treatment. The disadvantage of the test, like some other H. pylori tests, is that the result may be inaccurate if you are taking proton pump inhibitor medication. Also the result is not usually available for several days because of the measuring equipment used.

Antibody Blood Test

As with other infections, H. pylori infection trigger the production of specific antibodies in your blood. These can then be looked for with a simple blood test and the presence of these antibodies confirms H. pylori infection. Once your body has produced these antibodies they may persist for many years even after the infection has been eradicated.

For this reason, the blood test is useful for diagnosing infection only in a person who has never had H. pylori treatment, and it cannot be used more than once. The real advantage of the test is that it is very quick and usually available in the GP’s surgery. Unlike the other tests for H. pylori, any drugs that you may be taking do not influence the blood test.

Overcome Female Infertility – What is Antisperm Antibody Test?

Posted on June 2, 2018 in Uncategorized

As we mentioned in previous articles, infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to term. It effects over 5 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world. Because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist. In this article, we will discuss what male infertility antisperm antibody test is.

I. Definition
The antisperm antibody test is one of procedure which helps to see the antigens of the immune system function toward sperm invasion through blood test. If the immune system recognized or not the sperm as the foreign object, it will produces white blood cells to kill them.

II. Procedure
Blood is withdrawn from a vein in the arm of the infertile female in the clinic laboratory and is to analyzed by immunologic infertility specialist.

III. Diagnosis
The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance that binds only to the test sperm. Semen sample causes the immune system response in either the man’s or woman’s body. If there is an injure somewheres in the body or inflammation caused by irregular cell adhesion or implants such as endometriosis or sexual transmitted diseases infection which may stimulate the production of white blood. The white blood cells can damage or kill sperm if a high number of sperm antibodies is found leading to immunologic infertility.

Women may have an allergic reaction to her partner’s semen and make sperm antibodies leading to faultily recognizing the sperm as foreign invasion, thereby producing high a mount of antibody to kill them leading to infertility. This kind of immune response is not fully understood and happens only to small percentage of infertility couple. It is said that this kind of abnormal function can be treated by controlling the allergic reaction if the causes are found.

[Top]

Antibodies for the Study of Immunology

Posted on May 25, 2018 in Uncategorized

Immunology encompasses the study of all aspects of the immune system. The study of immunology is clinically relevant because an increased understanding of how the immune system functions will allow researchers to develop better treatments for both infectious and autoimmune diseases. Immunological research can also be targeted toward finding ways to harness the immune system to protect against the development of various cancers. Various proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, interferons and interleukins, are involved the various pathways associated with the immune system.

Cytokines

Cytokines are soluble extracellular proteins that act as key modulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are composed of two major subfamilies, chemokines and interleukins, which act as chemotactic cytokines and mediators of leukocyte communication, respectively. Cytokines are released by leukocytes in response to stimuli and regulate many biological processes, including cell activation, cell migration, cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, angiogenesis, development and tissue repair.

Chemokines

Chemokines are a family of cytokines that have the ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby cells. Homeostatic chemokines are involved in controlling the migration of cells during tissue maintenance and development. These chemokines also participate in immune surveillance by directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes. Pro-inflammatory chemokines are induced by an immune response and recruit immune cells to sites of infection. Their release is stimulated by cytokines in response to bacterial infections, viruses and/or physically damaging agents.

Chemokines can be divided into four classes based on the arrangement of the conserved cysteine residues of the mature proteins. Members of the CC group, which contain two adjacent cysteines near the amino terminus, induce the migration of monocytes, as well as NK cells and dendritic cells. The CXC group contains two N-terminal cysteines separated by one amino acid and is involved in the migration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. C chemokines, the third group, contain one N-terminal cysteine and one downstream cysteine. Members of this group attract T cell precursors to the thymus. The final group, CX3C chemokines, contains three amino acids between two cysteines and serves as adhesion molecules.

Interferons

Interferons (IFNs) are a type of cytokine that facilitate communication between cells to trigger the immune system. These proteins are synthesized and released by host cells in response to either pathogens or tumor cells. In addition to their ability to interfere with viral replication, IFNs also activate immune cells and up-regulate antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. Ten distinct IFNs have been identified in mammals and are classified among three IFN classes, Type IFN, Type II IFN and Type III IFN.

Interleukins

Interleukins (ILs) are a large group of cytokines that mediate cell-to-cell communication. They display a wide spectrum of biological activities including cell activation, differentiation, proliferation and motility. The majority of interleukins are produced by T helper cells, as well as by monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. ILs promote the development and differentiation of T-, B- and hematopoietic cells.

A deeper understanding of the various functions of cytokines, chemokines, interferons and interleukins in the body’s defense against pathogens, as well as the development autoimmune diseases, may one day lead to the development of better treatments and possibly even cures for a variety of diseases. Antibodies against these various factors are vital to the study of immunology, and antibody manufacturers are designing product lines to address the needs of this growing research area.

[Top]