Antibody

Antibody

The Real Reasons Doctors Don’t Check Antibody Levels in Hypothyroid Patients

Posted on June 30, 2018 in Uncategorized

Logic dictates that if the most common cause of hypothyroidism is from an autoimmune mechanism, then the first test ran on all newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients would be a thyroid antibody test. Well logic doesn’t always reign supreme and in many cases Hashimoto’s Autoimmune thyroid patients go undiagnosed and just given the standard thyroid replacement treatment. I am going to explore the most likely reasons this occurs.

The first and foremost reason most thyroid patients will never have their antibody levels checked is because the treatment protocol does not change based on the mechanism. Most doctors are going to give you synthetic thyroid replacement hormones, intermittently check your TSH, and call it a day. If you continue to suffer with the same symptoms as before they will be attributed to some other ailment, usually depression or anxiety, and be treated accordingly.

The second reason for the failure to order antibody tests, is a branch off of the first reason. Since the treatment is not going to be dictated based off the antibody results (although it should), then running the test becomes “medical waste” in the eyes of the insurance companies. The payment for a test that will not alter the course of treatment is in a way wasteful, but the real waste is in ignoring the underlying cause of the problem and leaving the patient to suffer. Many times patients are mocked and scorned for suggesting a test or treatment that is a bit outside of the tight little box Hashimoto’s patients are placed in.

Having no alternative treatment plan for Autoimmune thyroid, and the resultant medical waste of a test ordered but that has no bearing on the patients treatment are the two main reasons many Hashimoto’s patients go undiagnosed and ignored in the system.

Determining that hypothyroidism is from an immune mechanism, IS important, and should absolutely be managed in more comprehensive way, not only including some type of replacement hormone, but it should also include management of the immune systems destruction of the gland itself. A more comprehensive approach gives the patient a better chance to feel and function normally.

TGF Beta 1 Antibody – Controlling Many Cellular Functions

Posted on June 23, 2018 in Uncategorized

TGF beta 1 antibody – Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) beta 1, also known as anti-Camurati Engelmann disease antibody, is a polypeptide member of the Transforming growth factor beta super family of cytokines. Transforming Growth Factor 1 is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions such as controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis as well as a key role in wound healing and healthy cartilage maintenance.

The Transforming Growth Factor β 1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function. In addition, it interacts with several types of leukocytes such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in the control of the immune system; most of the cells this cytokine regulates also secrete it. Accordingly, a lot of cells have TGFB receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. T.G.F. β 1 is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton in addition to the extracellular matrix, highly expressed in bone and abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes.

Some T.G.F. β 1 gene mutations are acquired during a person’s lifetime and are present only in certain cells. These uninherited somatic mutations in TGF beta 1 gene cause alterations in the expression of the TGF β 1 protein and are associated with certain types of cancers as well as certain bone disorders. The altered protein expression may enhance several cancer related events such as proliferation, cell motility, and the development of new blood vessels that nourish a growing tumor. The TGF beta 1 protein is over expressed in certain types of prostate cancers. Altered Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 expression has also been found in breast, colon, lung, and bladder cancers. Additionally, research has shown that the TGF beta 1 antibody can operate as a biomarker and an analeptic target for cardiovascular disease, also known as heart disease. This means, using the TGF beta 1 antibody can help individuals that suffer from heart disease to determine the severity of their condition.

Aberrant Expression is also implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease leading to joint pain, tenderness, locking and sometimes joint effusion (increased amount of intra-articular fluid). This form of arthritis is the most common and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States, and is affecting millions in both the United Kingdom and the United States.

Defects in T.G.F. β 1 are the cause of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CE); also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia 1. CE is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. The disease typically presents in early childhood with pain, muscular weakness and waddling gait, and in some cases other features such as exophthalmos, facial paralysis, hearing difficulties and loss of vision.

The host of TGF beta 1 antibody is a rabbit, and is for research purposes only. The tested applications are WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.

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Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura – Is Anti-D Antibody the Right ITP Treatment For You?

Posted on June 17, 2018 in Uncategorized

One form of ITP treatment is Anti-D Anti-body. This is just one of the conventional medical treatments doctors prescribe for idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (an autoimmune disease where the body destroys it’s own blood platelets. Marketed under the names of WinRho SDF or Rhophylac, Anti-D Antibody is a blood product used to raise the blood platelet count temporarily and occasionally longer term. In one study it was found to be effective about 80% of the time although the effects were temporary. the effects usually last about a month. Just what is Anti-D you might ask?. It is a freeze dried gamma globulin fraction which contains antibodies to Rh (D). It is made of human plasma from a limited list of donors. The plasma undergoes a viral inactivation and micro filtering process using a solvent detergent.

The donors are stimulated to produce Immunoglobulin with high levels of specific antibodies, thereby reducing the cost of the treatment by at least half of what IVIg treatment would cost. It is also safer to use then IVIg , because Anti-D has been treated to inactivate any form of viral contamination. Because Anti-D antibodies and action are so specific, it is only effective for people who still have their spleen and are Rh positive (about 85% of population). It may not be suitable for some pregnant women. Anti-D Antibody is taken either through an IV drip, which usually takes about half an hour or through an IV push, which just as the term indicates, pushes the infusion through your blood stream in about 5 minutes. These treatments can be given as a single dose or 2 doses over separate days. The frequency and dose is determined by the patient’s clinical response.

What are the side effects? Not pleasant to be sure and sometimes even deadly. They range from headaches, chills, fever and body aches, pain and swelling at the injection site. Not everyone experiences the same side effects. For people sensitive to blood products there is a remote risk of shock.. Anemia is also a problem because of the destruction of red blood cells. Monitoring the patient is especially important for people with low hemoglobin. Sometimes rare but serious complications such as intravascular hemolysis can occur which is releases hemoglobin into the plasma and involves pre-mature destruction of the red blood cells, and can result in death. Patients should be advised of warning signs for intravascular hemolysis such as back pain, shaking chills, fever, discolored urine, fluid retention, decreased urine, shortness of breath and sudden weight gain.

If you have ITP disorder and your physician has recommended Anti-D Antibody you should discuss all aspects of treatment with him, especially potential side effects in order to make the right decision about your health.

It seems like an awful lot of risk for a temporary fix. Don’t you think? Consider the risks and look for safer alternatives.

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