P53 antibody – P53, also identified as tumor protein 53, is a tumor suppressor protein that is encoded by the TP53 gene in humans.
The gene is highly conserved in vertebrates with sequences found in invertebrates showing only a distant resemblance to mammalian forms of the gene. P53 is crucial in multi-cellular organisms where it plays a crucial role in DNA damage repair and anticancer function. During the DNA synthesis phase of cellular division in the event of DNA damage P53 is activated. P53 arrests the cell cycle in the S-phase of the cycle and activate DNA repair proteins to repair any damages before allowing the cell cycle to continue. Moreover, P53 can also initiate apoptosis, programmed cell death, if DNA damage cannot be repaired, preserving genomic stability.
Additionally, it also becomes active if factors such as stress, (osmotic) shock, and deregulated oncogene appearance occur. P53 also functions in the inhibition of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels that is crucial in the growth and metastasis of cancer and tumors.
The mouse monoclonal antibody can be used to visualize the P53 tumor antigen quantities in a broad selection of transformed cells. In addition, the protein is visible in many dynamic proliferating non transformed cells.
However, it is undetectable or present at low levels in resting cells. This protein induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to sublethal or severe DNA damage, respectively, by differential transcription of target genes and through transcription-independent apoptotic functions. The P53 protein contains 393 amino acids, and the human P53 tumor antigen is located at band 17p13.
P53 mutations or deletions play a crucial role in the development of cancer, as well as cancer diagnostics and research. P53 malfunctions are common in pancreatic cancer, in addition to Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by the damage in the P53 tumor suppressor gene. If an individual is diagnosed with this syndrome then they are 25 times more likely to develop a malignant tumor by the age of 50. This syndrome is characterized by several different cancers i.e. breast cancer, and acute leukemia. Diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome includes if the patient has been diagnosed with sarcoma below the age of 45, which is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Other possible developments can lead from first or second degree family members that have had cancer at a young age.
Recommendations for Li-Fraumeni syndrome includes avoiding radiation therapy, which can diminish the risk of secondary radiation induced malignancies. In addition, other prerequisite proposals that have to be done to prevent Li-Fraumeni syndrome are annual physical examination, for women to start breast cancer monitoring from age 25, and to consult with a physician if any illnesses or symptoms arises.
The P53 antibody host is from a mouse, and can be tested on other species for research use only. The P53 antibody can be tested on a range of applications, such as WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.