Antibody

Antibody

Home - Category: Uncategorized (Page 3)

Category: Uncategorized

Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Therapies in Neoplastic Disease

Posted on October 21, 2018 in Uncategorized

In the last ten years the treatment of many types of cancer has been revolutionized by monoclonal antibody therapies. There are many, many print and audiovisual advertisements for these drugs bringing them into the public mainstream.. So, this brings to point some important questions: 1) What are monoclonal antibodies? 2) What types of cancer are treatable by this therapy? 3) What is the basic mechanism of action, i.e., How do these drugs work?

Antibodies are the body’s natural immune defense against invading pathogens. They are produced by specific cells of the immune system termed B cells. When an infection of the body occurs, the immune system takes note. After a brief time, when the front line defenses of the immune system battle the infection, [termed the innate immune response- the first line of battle], the cellular part of the fight takes over [the adaptive response]. The adaptive immune response involves antigen presenting cells, T and B cells. Very briefly, what happens within your body when an infection occurs is this: Circulating “detectives” called macrophages and dendritic cells find the infection and literally eat it or eat cells infected [in the case of a viral infection]. The cells then “present” specific protein parts of the eaten pathogen [bacteria or virus–called antigens] to cells called T and B cells. This is a call to arms: this is literally a scream saying “time to kick butt” by the immune system. The T cells are activated by the B cells upon finding the presenting antigen. The B cells then decide that they can better fight by changing themselves into a plasma cell. This is where the action happens. The B cell changes into a protein pumping machine, the protein being antibodies. The antibodies then go find from the blood the pathogen that the original antigen presenting cells early in the infection encountered. When the antibodies find their target, they bind to it and mark it for death. Think of this as a ball with toilet plungers attached. The wooden handle is what tells the immune system, “this thing needs to die”.

This is the basic theory behind monoclonal cancer therapy. Except in the context of monoclonal antibody cancer treatment, the antibodies are produced to a single epitope (a particular protein that the immune system readily sees from a cancer cell). These cells are then taken into the laboratory, grown and stimulated to produce a single antibody that “sees” a cancer cell.

An example of monoclonal antibody treatment in cancer is Herceptin. Herceptin is a monoclonal antibody specific for an antigen called HER2. HER2 is a protein that is more prevalent on cancer cells of the breast than in normal cells. This protein is from a family of receptors that tells normal cells to grow. The drug then takes advantage of this and can specifically target cancer cells of the breast in order to kill them. This drug too has side effects of being NOT heart friendly.

Another good example of neoplastic cancer therapy is the drug termed Rituxan (Rituximab). Rituxan is a monoclonal antibody directed towards the antigen CD20 on circulating lymphocytes of the blood and is indicated for the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It works by depleting the blood of cells that have over-produced cells that have CD20 on their cell surface. When the antibody binds, like Herceptin, the body sees those cells as foreign and kills them.

So, the question is now that we know what neoplastic antibody therapy is, how does this killing work?
The current research and thinking is that when cancer cells are coated by these antibody drugs, the extending end of the antibody [called the Fc portion] attracts Natural Killer, NK, cells from the immune system. These cells actually have receptors that recognize this very event. When NK cells find antibody coated cells, they bind to them tightly and commence to kill them. The close proximity of the two cells allows the NK cell to release protein degradating enzymes, and other cytotoxic elements to kill the target.
This entire process is termed Antibody Dependent Cellular Toxicity, ADCC.

ADCC is a powerful tool being utilized by numerous biotech companies with the intent to augment the immune response with other, novel drugs. Such drugs that come to mind are TLR agonists, chemotherapy drugs and gene transfer strategies.

Genentech makes Herceptin, while Rituximab is in combination with Biogen Idec/Genentech. Both drugs are multimillion dollar assets to both companies. The side effects of Herceptin have been documented and are under intense research to understand them. Rituxan continues to be a key element to the bottom line of both companies with it’s successful treatments.

Herceptin is produced by Genentech.
Rituxan is another monoclonal antibody treatment indicated for the treatment of lymphoma.

Laughter – The Natural Antibody That Burns Calories

Posted on October 14, 2018 in Uncategorized

For some people who want to stay healthy without getting tired of doing hard exercises or spending a lot of money on medicine, laughing may be the alternative activity they have to choose.

Laughing is almost the same as aerobics exercise, which benefit especially the upper part of the body. It is a work out for diaphragm, abdominal, respiratory, facial, shoulders, back muscles and even legs. Moreover, it makes digestion and absorption system functioning better. According to some studies, laughter can burn calories equal to walking or biking.

A study conducted at Vanderbilt University demonstrated that 10 to 40 percent calories are burnt through 10 to 15 minutes laughing. In fact, new research published in the International Journal of Obesity said that laughing is the best medicine for a weight problem.

One thing for sure, laughing needs no cost all. It is a natural antibody or in other words priceless medicine. The same as smiling which can increase endorphin hormone, so as laughing can strengthen the immune system and increase natural killer cell levels that prevent the growth of cancer cells. Laughing also makes a person’s body more relaxed and thereafter reduces problems related to high blood pressure, heart attack or stroke, depression, anxiety, stress, arthritis, and ulcer.

Most of the time, laughing is also an exercise for the heart and lungs. It can increase the amount of oxygen getting through our body. Thus, laughter is believed to stimulate both sides of brain and enhance the brain function related to retaining information and solving problem.

Believe it or not, children laugh more than adult. This is pathetic because adult is the one who has more problems. That is why they need more laughter to overcome them. Or is it because they laugh less thus they have more problems?

Custom Antibody Sequencing – Discovery of the Century

Posted on October 8, 2018 in Uncategorized

Brief introduction to Custom antibodies

Antibodies help us to protect from numerous bacterial infections. They are big protein compounds white cells. Custom antibodies are distinctive proteins which are separated from the analysis subject’s blood when a particular disorder or foreign compound is inserted into its structure. Initially, custom antibodies were described in studies carried by experts in early 1980s. To accelerate to express Charles Darwin’s concept of evolution, editors of New Scientist Magazine, John Gribbin and Jeremy Cherfas, introduced an impressive technique to research the human development. They produced a blood serum protein and inserted it into a rabbit. The entire body of the rabbit identified the foreign proteins and created antibodies – which were particular to unique proteins. You will find many companies which develop custom antibodies and provide high-end services like transient expression or antibody sequencing for scientists who are trying to understand and explore vaccines for various health issues. Recognized as custom antibody solutions, these agencies generally get samples of the foreign element and the subject’s serum or blood. The foreign element is recognized as an antigen and the antibodies are proteins which combine with them.

Antibody sequencing and transient expression at a glance

Many companies exist today which deals with protein sequencing and sequencing dead hybridomal cells. The researchers which want to boost their process of innovation and support, approaching such companies that deal with transient expression is the right option. Today, the antibody sequencing is performed over different species like rat, mouse, human guinea pig, hamster, bovine, rabbits and human antibody concealing EBV cell lines. Most of the companies which are into the antibody development business maintain the highest standards and follow projected timelines.

Transient expression of a transformed gene in the preferred target cells over the comparatively short time period; and doesn’t always show integration of a gene into the host chromosome and isn’t transferred to the following generation. For the fast and quick formation of cell lines indicating full-length recombinant antibodies and completely improved antibodies, modern science has introduced enhanced technology.

For the period of the transient expression, the protein is indicated just for a short time, that is perfect for confirmation of theory because the DNA which is released in the transfection procedure is generally not involved into the nuclear genome and is going to be diluted via degraded or mitosis. When the scientist has recognized the subjected protein of interest, the development of a balanced transfected cell line is the expected second step that needs the transfected gene to live in cells’ genome. This takes more time compared to transient transfections to get the stable transfection. The multi-simultaneous testing method uses numerous proprietary vector models for increasing the development of recombinant protein you need. After that, the Bioinformatics is performed for creating best suited proteins required for specific studies.

Following the same, there are many companies these days which deals with transient expression and antibody sequencing as well as helps in challenging projects like DNA sequencing, drug development, cloning, patent application, etc. Today, the advanced antibody development plays a vital role in helping human beings fight against insoluble disease and treat the patients.

Top