TLR2 antibody – Toll like receptor 2, which is also known as TLR-2, or CD282 is a transmembrane protein that is encoded by the TLR2 gene. This surface protein is present on a number of leukocytes, white blood cells, such as macrophages, microglia, schwann cells, dendritic cells, B-cells and T-cells.
This transmembrane protein plays an important role in the recognition of foreign bodies and the innate immune response to those pathogens. Toll receptors are activated by highly specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are specific to bacterial, fungal, viral and certain endogenous substances. As a result, the TLR2, which are single pass trans-membrane cell-surface receptors, are a key function in the activation of innate immunity.
In most cases, the interaction between receptor and PAMPs will result in the phagocytosis of bound molecules and in cellular activation. This will activate macrophages in addition to dendritic cells to assume non-specific immune defense and cytokine release. Moreover, it will activate B-cells to begin antibody production and formation of pathogen specific antibodies.
Toll like receptors (TLR) are well preserved from drosophila to humans and are structurally and functionally similar. They both recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are expressed on infectious agents. It then creates cytokines, which are necessary for the progress of efficient immunity. Consequently, the mixture of different TLRs exhibits different patterns of appearance.
TLR2 is one of the most important receptor of the innate immune system and is an element of the defense against microbial organisms. TLR2 is activated through both internal and external signals (microbial cell wall components). The TLR2 has an important function in pathogen detection for inflammatory conditions that include ischemia reperfusion injury, cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and is relevant to Alzheimer’s disease.
One of the most common neurological diseases is Alzheimer’s, which is the most common form of dementia and accounts for up to 80% of all cases. The symptoms cause problems with thinking, memory and behavior and usually develop over time in old age, and eventually start to have negative consequences on daily lives. The majority of people with Alzheimer’s disease are 65 and over. They will ultimately not have the capacity to have a dialogue with anybody such as family or friends, and unable to react to their environment. Therefore, it could potentially lead them into dangerous situations if the proper care or treatment was not provided for them. Those that are unfortunate to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease live on average eight years after they are diagnosed, although this can depend on their health conditions. Moreover, Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States of America. Thus, TLR2 antibodies have become a staple of any research lab investigating causes and possible treatments for this devastating disease.
The antibody can be tested on a range of applications such as WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-ELISA. This is used to test the antibody on a large selection of model species such as mouse, rat, sheep, cow, dog, chicken, pig, and Human.