Antibody

Antibody

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Overcome Infertility – Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) In Conventional Perspective

Posted on May 18, 2018 in Uncategorized

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role in treating all kinds of disease and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Antinuclear antibody is defined as specific class of auto antibodies that have the ability to attack structures in the nucleus of cells instead of performing the normal antibody function. It can be detected through blood sample withdrawn from the patient’s vein.

2. Causes
a) Infection and inflammation
Infection and inflammation caused by bacteria or virus speeding up the body immune system function, but in some cases, bacteria and virus induce the immune system to produce antibodies which directed against the tissues of the body.
b) Medication

i) Phenytoin
Pheytoin may increase the risk of production of antinuclear antibody, leading to increasing the risk of malformations and birth defects.
ii) Antibotics
Long term uses of antibody may increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody as the medication causes abnormal reaction to the immune system.
iii) Methyldopa
The medication is used to dilate blood vessels for treating high blood pressure, but long term use of this type of medication may decrease the risk of immune disorder in production of antinuclear antibody.

c) Aging
As we age, the levels of antinuclear antibody increases and in some older adults (5% to 40%) may have mildly elevated levels caused by weakening immune function.
d) Diseases
Some diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may also increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody.

3. How antinuclear antibody effects infertility
Under normal conditions, when a woman becomes pregnant, the white blood cells in her uterus produce protective, blocking antibodies. In case of antinuclear antibody, the white blood cells recognize the fetus as a foreign invasion and attack it, leading to miscarriage.

4. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants,it is a purified preparation derived from animal tissue. It helps to increase the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss.
b) Aspirin
Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory and blood thinner agent, it helps to increase the blood circulating to the reproductive organs, thereby reducing the risk of antinuclear antibody attacking the fetus or the women reproductive tissues. It is recommendation to take 80 mg per day, which is equivalent to a baby aspirin. if necessary.

Overcome Infertility – What is Anti Thyroid Antibodies in Conventional Perspective

Posted on May 10, 2018 in Uncategorized

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometimes the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti thyroid antibodies affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition

Anti Thyroid Antibodies are defined as abnormal function of antibodies produced by immune system act directly against the thyroid gland. It is caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to abnormal production of certain antithyroid antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal, causing miscarriage by attacking the placental or fetal tissues.

2. Causes

a) Hypothyroidism
Study show that women with low levels of thyroid hormone have high levels antithyroid antibody compared with other women who do not.

b) Aging
We all know, as we age, the immune system is no longer function as it should, leading to infection and inflammation resulting in increasing the risk of over production of antithyroid antibody.

c) Infection and inflammation
Infection or inflammation thyroid gland or other part of the body may elevate the levels of antithyroid antibody as the antibody made by protein of the immune system become abnormal and attack the thyroid gland tissues

d) Medication.
Medication use such as cholestyramine, seizure medication and antibiotic may interferes with the absorption of levothyroxine or speeds the breakdown of levothyroxine, leading to hypothyroidism resulting in increasing the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

3. Treatments

a) Selenium supplement
Since the antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals, it also helps to increase immune system in regulating the production of our body antibody including antithyroid antibody.

b) Antithyroid medication
Antithyroid medication such as desiccated thyroid, eltroxin and synthroid help to increase the the levels of thyroid function by the thyroid gland thereby, affecting the immune system resulting in lessening the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

c) Lower levels of cholesterol
Some researcher found that decreasing the levels of cholesterol in the blood stream may help to reduce the risk of hypothyroidism thereby, reducing the risk of elevating the levels of antithyroid antibody

4. Side effects of the medication

a) Heart palpitations.
b) Nervousness.
c) Insomnia.
d) Shaking
e) Too much weight loss.
f) Osteoporosis if it is taken for a long time
g) Etc.

Sclerostin Antibody – Bone Overgrowth From Mutations

Posted on May 4, 2018 in Uncategorized

Sclerostin antibody Sclerostin is a secreted glycoprotein with a protein sequence similar to the bone morphogenic protein antagonist family. The protein is encoded by the SOST gene in humans. It is produced by the osteocyte and down regulates osteoblastic bone formation.

Recently, sclerostin has been implicated in the inhibition of Wnt signaling leading to attenuated bone formation and growth, acting as a stop signal to decrease bone formation by osteoblasts. Mutations in sclerostin are a result from early stop signals during protein production, leading to uninhibited Wnt signaling and bone overgrowth. The mutations in this process can lead to a range of diseases, such as type II diabetes, breast and prostate cancer.

Production of this protein is inhibited by parathyroid hormone, leading to enhanced release of the calcium from the large reservoir contained in the bones, indirectly stimulating bone resorption by osteoclasts, and various other cytokines. Production of this protein is stimulated by calcitonin, a hormone which acts to reduce blood calcium levels that acts in opposition to the parathyroid hormone.

Bone remodelling is the process by which the adult skeleton is continually renewed through the highly coordinated activity of three types of cells, which are osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Disruptions in signalling among these cells and alterations in their activity have been associated with skeletal diseases such as ‘van Buchem disease’.

Mutations in the sclerostin gene are associated with the autosomal-recessive disorder called sclerosteosis, in addition to other disorders characterized by bone overgrowth. Sclerosteosis is a rare disorder characterized by bone over growth primarily in the skull, mandible and long, tubular bones. Individual affected with this homozygous disorder have no detectable levels of circulating sclerostin. However, heterozygous individuals for the mutations express the normal phenotype and normal lifespan, with dense bones and a low risk for fracture. This observation has led to the development of a novel strategy to emulate the heterozygous mutational state as an effective treatment for bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis.

Sclerostin is the subject of key research into both bone overgrowth and bone loss. As Sclerostin antibody could potentially increase bone formation significantly without effecting bone resorption and enhance bone strength. Thus, sclerostin antibody can potentially alleviate osteoporosis disease, this occurs when bones become fragile and more likely to fracture.

This has been established in numerous clinical trials in rats, monkeys, and in humans. It has been recognized that the absence of the sclerostin protein leads to bone overgrowth. Whereas an excess amount of sclerostin leads to bone loss and reduced bone strength. This was proved in various trials, for instance the trial on a six month old female rats was a success. Once the sclerostin antibody was administered, it quickly created an increase in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. For the human clinical trials, it was a success in healthy men and postmenopausal women (72 targets), as the antibody was tolerated well, which was the palpable primary goal. Additionally, the targets had augmented bone density for hip fractures and in their spine. Methods to increase bone in humans have long been sought. The bone formation axis controlled by sclerostin may provide an important new strategy to accomplish this. Thus, Sclerostin asserts itself as a prime therapeutic target to address bone disorders. The modification of its activity or expression offers an exciting possibility for the development of new drugs for the treatment of disorders associated with bone loss.

This antibody is for research use only and can be used on the following applications, WB (western blot), IHC-P(immunohistochemistry), and P-ELISA.

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