Antibody

Antibody

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Category: Uncategorized

Antibody Offers New Hope Against Ovarian Cancer

Posted on July 19, 2018 in Uncategorized

Ovarian cancer has been fatal for women. More and more women are becoming victims of this cancer. More than 21,000 cases of this disease have been recorded during the year 2009. Statistics reveal that women who have been diagnosed with this cancer when they were less than 30 years have more chances of survival than older women who have crossed 50.

In ovarian cancer, the lethal cancer cells get accumulated in the ovaries. Since ovaries are important for producing eggs for reproduction, this deadly disease affects the female reproductive and sexual organs. Different types of tumor cells like stromal, germ cell and epithelial tumors cause this type of cancer.

A lot of research has gone into fighting the numerous cancer cells that affect the individuals. With all treatments and medications, scientists find it a challenge to treat this disease.

Lately, a new antibody has been found by the researchers in order to fight against the cancer cells that attack the immune system of the body. This has offered new hopes for treating ovarian cancer among women.

This antibody named AD5-10 attaches to the cancer cells weakening the resistance of the tumor cells to the body’s immune system. In addition, this antibody is found to be more effective for chemotherapy.

AD5-10 antibody decreases resistance of the cells to carboplatin, a common agent used in chemotherapy. The combined effect of this antibody along with carboplatin was more effective for treating cancer patients. Reports also revealed that the antibody is found to react in this manner only when the cell killers known as lymphocytes NK are present in the tumor cells during the same time.

Antibody Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Posted on July 12, 2018 in Uncategorized

Scientists in the US led by Dr. Mark Greene of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have developed a monoclonal antibody that they hope will become a successful therapeutic agent against prostate cancer. Every year thousands of men die from aggressive forms of this disease. This research holds out hope for those affected although it will be some time before clinical trials will be carried out.

When we become infected by foreign cells such as bacteria or viruses or cancer cells one very important means of defense that we can utilize is to produce antibodies. All cells have proteins on their surfaces known as antigens. When foreign cells enter our bodies the antigens are recognized as foreign by our immune system and B Lymphocytes are prompted to produce antibodies. Once antibodies are formed they act by attaching and binding to the antigens on the surface of the invading cell. This ultimately leads to the destruction of the cell and the removal of the infection or cancer cells. Antibodies are a very powerful weapon in our fight against disease.

There are two significant characteristics of antibodies that we can exploit in the treatment of disease. One is that antibodies are totally specific. For example if we contract an infection such as rubella we will produce an antibody specifically targeted to the rubella virus. The second characteristic is that antibodies remain in our bodies after an infection has been cleared thereby conferring protection into the future against that disease.

It is these characteristics that have led to the development of vaccine technology. Pharmaceutical companies take pathological organisms and treat them so that they cannot cause infection. These inactive organisms make up the main component of a vaccine. When a vaccine is administered our immune system recognizes the antigen, antibody is produced and we become immune to future infection.

The cells which produce antibodies are B Lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. Scientists can isolate and clone B lymphocytes to produce antibodies in laboratory conditions. These antibodies can then be used therapeutically to treat infection or cancer. The antibodies produced will be either polyclonal or monoclonal. Polyclonal antibodies are produced from several cell lines. Monoclonal antibodies are produced from just one cell line. To produce a monoclonal antibody a B Lymphocyte is fused with a tumor cell. The fused cell is known as a hybridoma and it has the capability of reproducing endlessly. This technology allows scientists to create unlimited and large quantities of very specific antibody which can be used to treat disease very effectively. One of the major advantages of the use of monoclonal antibodies is its absolute specificity. It targets a cancer cell directly with with very few side effects for the patient.

Antibodies are already being used to tackle diseases such as lymphoma and breast cancer. Up to now there has been no successful antibody therapy for prostate cancer. Dr Greenes research team has produced an antibody called F77 which looks very promising. Despite the research being at a very early stage, it raises the prospect of an effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer for the first time.

New Cancer Treatment Techniques: Antibody Drug Conjugate & Peptide Drug Conjugations

Posted on July 6, 2018 in Uncategorized

The efforts to find a cure for cancers have been ongoing since long time ago. Yet, no effective methods or drugs are discovered by now. Scientists and doctors never stop their steps along this journey with the pains and sufferings of cancer patients echoing in their minds. But with the advance in science and technology, new emerging techniques do make their presence and share their role in the battles against various cancers.

Among them bioconjugation is worthy of mentioning here. As its name suggests, bioconjugation is basically a technique used to form a stable covalent link between at least two different molecular parts of biological origin. Through this technique new chemicals can be made or some biomolecules are able to take on certain personalized new looks. Despite its limitations in specificity, stability and bioavailability, bioconjugation is widely used in biomedical researches given its great potential in cancer treatment.

Of course, when talking about new cancer treatment techniques, we cannot miss antibody drug conjugates and peptide drug conjugates. With application of them, new drugs to cure cancer may be discovered.

Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs)

ADCs are virtually complex molecules that are composed of an antibody linked to a biologically active cytotoxic payload or drug. Ever since the advent of ADC technique, it has gained remarkable attention and gradually revolutionize the field of cancer chemotherapy.

What makes it stand out among all breakthroughs in the biopharmaceutical industry is ADCs intend to target and kill exclusively the cancer cells and thus spares healthy cells. This differentiates itself from the conventional treatments which will also damage healthy tissues during dose escalation.

Peptide Drug Conjugations

Peptides are considered as an important type of molecules to be derived using the bioconjugation technique. Peptide drug conjugate holds a promising stance in targeted cancer therapy as it enables the delivery of therapeutic agents by providing distinct advantage of improving therapeutic potential of drugs. Through synthesis and modification of different categories of peptides, this technique will exert considerable impact on academic research, clinical diagnostics, the production of therapeutics and more.

Research is ongoing for the development of new drug delivery systems for targeted drug delivery. Peptides derived from sequence of cell surface proteins have shown potent binding affinity to the target cell surface receptors. Equipping peptides-drug conjugates with target cell specific ligands like EGF and RGD peptides can provide a solution for selective and targeted delivery.

With the discovery and application of such new techniques, cancer may be cured in the near future.

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