Antibody

Antibody

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Month: September 2018

Type 2 Diabetes – Can Low Levels of Antibodies Contribute to the Development of Diabetes?

Posted on September 7, 2018 in Uncategorized

Scientists at Guandong Medical University and several other research institutions in China and Scotland found low levels of certain types of antibodies in people who had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. These antibodies stop inflammation, which has a known link to insulin resistance, the cause of Type 2 diabetes.

In November of 2017, the Journal of Inflammation, (London), reported on a study that looked at antibodies to inflammatory molecules in people with Type 2 diabetes. Women had decreased levels of the antibodies called anti-IL6 IgG and anti-IL8 IgG. Both molecules are inflammatory, as is anti-TNF-ALPHA IgG, which was seen in low levels in men. The participants were then given blood sugar lowering drugs for 6 months. HbA1c levels were found to be…

  • lowest in those diabetics with the highest levels of anti-ILALPHA IgG and
  • highest in those with low levels of the antibodies,

although the differences were not statistically significant.

From this information the researchers concluded deficiencies of antibodies to inflammatory molecules probably raises the risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes.

Antibodies are proteins that attach themselves to molecules known as antigens. We usually think of antibodies as connecting themselves to alien organisms, such as bacteria and viruses to enable white blood cells to engulf and kill the invaders.

Inflammation is part of the immune response, but it must fade away after the invaders have been vanquished. The role of antibodies to inflammatory molecules is to stop inflammation.

Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins, and they are composed of three protein chains held together in a Y shape. Five types of antibody are classified according to their species of chains. The chains include…

  • IgG,
  • IgM,
  • IgA,
  • IgE, and
  • IgD.

Inflammation is defined by the five conditions it causes…

  • heat,
  • redness,
  • pain,
  • loss of function, and
  • swelling.

Inflammation in the body is named for the inflamed organ plus the ending “itis.” For instance, inflammation of the skin is called dermatitis, “derma” for skin, and “itis” for inflammation.

Two main classes of drugs are used for fighting inflammation…

  • cortisone which resembles a body hormone, and
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include medications such as aspirin, Tylenol, and Motrin.

Cortisone is a steroid, which works against inflammatory reactions by blocking white blood cells from going to the site where the inflammation takes place. (Not to be confused with steroids used illegally to boost athletic performance).

NSAIDs work against body molecules called prostaglandins, which are also pro-inflammatory.

Antisperm Antibodies

Posted on September 1, 2018 in Uncategorized

There are many causes and reasons for infertility in males, of which one of them is antisperm antibodies. A man suffering from antisperm antibodies generally gets sensitized to sperm, to cause an immune system that destroys the sperms found in the body.

In a normal man, a barrier in his testes protects the sperm from the immune system. However, those men with antisperm antibodies have a broken barrier wherein immune cells can easily access the sperm. With the unique antigen surface that is found on such sperms, the immune system detects its presence and thus triggers a response.

About 10% of infertile men suffer from antisperm antibodies and this is what interferes with the quality and function of the sperm. It is depending on the location of the antibodies that the sperm is affected. If the antibodies are on the tail, then the sperms are either immobilized or found clumped together. If they are found on the head, then the sperm is prevented from binding to the egg, and thus prevents fertilization from taking place.

There are various causes for antisperm antibodies developing, of which the main reason is the cervical mucus found in some woman. This cervical mucus tends to develop antibodies in the sperm and is the cause of about 40% of the unexplained infertility in couples. Even anything that disrupts the barrier found between the sperm and immune system like infection, injury to the testicles and twisting of testicles can lead to antisperm antibodies.

Other causes of antisperm antibodies are undescended testicles, testicular biopsy and cancer, varicocele and congenital absence of vas deferens. About 70% of men who had a vasectomy reversal have also been found to have antisperm antibodies.

Doctors can easily diagnose antisperm antibodies with an analysis of the man’s sperm and by analyzing the woman’s cervical mucus after sex for any antibodies. However, when diagnosed with antisperm antibodies, it is not easy to eliminate the antibodies. High doses of cortico steroids generally lower the number of antibodies to restore fertility temporarily. However, these high doses bring with it many serious side effects.

This is the reason couples who suffer from this condition usually turn to assisted reproductive technologies to conceive a baby. One of the techniques used here is washing the sperm before in vitro fertilization. With this, the sperm can produce fertilized eggs better for implantation. Sometimes, washing of the sperm is also used in intrauterine insemination.