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Month: July 2018

TNF Alpha Antibody – A Cell Signaling Protein

Posted on July 31, 2018 in Uncategorized

TNF alpha antibody – The TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Alpha is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory adipokine, a cell signaling protein secreted by adipose tissue, involved in systemic inflammation and stimulation of the acute phase reaction. It is is a potent lymphoid factor that exerts cytotoxic effects on a wide range of tumor cells and certain other target cells.This protein is primarily produced as a type two transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. This membrane bound form of the protein is then proteolytically cleaved into the secreted form of TNF alpha, both the secreted and membrane bound protein are biologically active. The adipokine can bind two TNF receptors. The first receptor is expressed in most tissues and can interact and be activated by both forms of the TNF protein. While, in contrast, the second TNF receptor is only found in immune cells and respond to the membrane bound form of the TNF protein.

While is can be secreted by many cells types, including CD4+ lymphocytes, natural killer cells and neurons; this adipokine is produced primarily by activated macrophages. TNF alphas primary role is the regulation of immune cells. The adipokine is also an endogenous pyrogen and is able to induce fever both directly and via stimulation of interleukin secretion, apoptotic cell death, cachexia (wasting syndrome), inflammation and tumorigenesis (carcinogenesis) and viral replication inhibition. TNF alpha has been implicated in a variety of illnesses, such as cancer, insulin resistance, and autoimmune diseases.

Tumor Necrosis Factor promotes an inflammatory response to remove harmful stimuli, which include damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens, and then begins the therapeutic process. The inflammatory response is generally in response to a foreign pathogen but in some cases, excessive inflammation may be indicative of an autoimmune disease and other disorders. Some examples of autoimmune diseases are ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton), Crohn’s disease (inflammatory bowel disease), psoriasis (lifelong condition that affects the skin), hidradenitis suppurativa (skin diseases) and asthma (known as refractory asthma, if the symptoms persist long-term).

Additionally, TNF alpha can be a gateway to provide a biological therapy to patients as it is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in many aspects of the airway pathology in asthma, and can potentially be a significant factor in refractory asthma (persistent symptoms). This is completed by inducing either an increase in resistance or a decrease in driving pressure. As a result, TNA alpha antibody can be used as a therapeutic option for patients by increasing the resistance of the autoimmune disease, which will increase airway responsiveness.

The biotechnology industry is the operation of biological processes for scientific reagents and for other scientific functions. Fundamentally, biological reagents are mechanisms that are used in biochemical analysis to assess biological processes. It can be used to produce antibodies that are used to target a particular protein target, which are known as antigens.

The host of the TNF alpha antibody is a rabbit, and it reacts withhuman, mouse and rat. The antibody can be used on the following applications, WB (western blot), and IHC-P (immunohistochemistry).

P53 Antibody – The Multi-Cellular Organism

Posted on July 25, 2018 in Uncategorized

P53 antibody – P53, also identified as tumor protein 53, is a tumor suppressor protein that is encoded by the TP53 gene in humans.

The gene is highly conserved in vertebrates with sequences found in invertebrates showing only a distant resemblance to mammalian forms of the gene. P53 is crucial in multi-cellular organisms where it plays a crucial role in DNA damage repair and anticancer function. During the DNA synthesis phase of cellular division in the event of DNA damage P53 is activated. P53 arrests the cell cycle in the S-phase of the cycle and activate DNA repair proteins to repair any damages before allowing the cell cycle to continue. Moreover, P53 can also initiate apoptosis, programmed cell death, if DNA damage cannot be repaired, preserving genomic stability.

Additionally, it also becomes active if factors such as stress, (osmotic) shock, and deregulated oncogene appearance occur. P53 also functions in the inhibition of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels that is crucial in the growth and metastasis of cancer and tumors.

The mouse monoclonal antibody can be used to visualize the P53 tumor antigen quantities in a broad selection of transformed cells. In addition, the protein is visible in many dynamic proliferating non transformed cells.

However, it is undetectable or present at low levels in resting cells. This protein induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to sublethal or severe DNA damage, respectively, by differential transcription of target genes and through transcription-independent apoptotic functions. The P53 protein contains 393 amino acids, and the human P53 tumor antigen is located at band 17p13.

P53 mutations or deletions play a crucial role in the development of cancer, as well as cancer diagnostics and research. P53 malfunctions are common in pancreatic cancer, in addition to Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by the damage in the P53 tumor suppressor gene. If an individual is diagnosed with this syndrome then they are 25 times more likely to develop a malignant tumor by the age of 50. This syndrome is characterized by several different cancers i.e. breast cancer, and acute leukemia. Diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome includes if the patient has been diagnosed with sarcoma below the age of 45, which is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Other possible developments can lead from first or second degree family members that have had cancer at a young age.

Recommendations for Li-Fraumeni syndrome includes avoiding radiation therapy, which can diminish the risk of secondary radiation induced malignancies. In addition, other prerequisite proposals that have to be done to prevent Li-Fraumeni syndrome are annual physical examination, for women to start breast cancer monitoring from age 25, and to consult with a physician if any illnesses or symptoms arises.

The P53 antibody host is from a mouse, and can be tested on other species for research use only. The P53 antibody can be tested on a range of applications, such as WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.

Antibody Offers New Hope Against Ovarian Cancer

Posted on July 19, 2018 in Uncategorized

Ovarian cancer has been fatal for women. More and more women are becoming victims of this cancer. More than 21,000 cases of this disease have been recorded during the year 2009. Statistics reveal that women who have been diagnosed with this cancer when they were less than 30 years have more chances of survival than older women who have crossed 50.

In ovarian cancer, the lethal cancer cells get accumulated in the ovaries. Since ovaries are important for producing eggs for reproduction, this deadly disease affects the female reproductive and sexual organs. Different types of tumor cells like stromal, germ cell and epithelial tumors cause this type of cancer.

A lot of research has gone into fighting the numerous cancer cells that affect the individuals. With all treatments and medications, scientists find it a challenge to treat this disease.

Lately, a new antibody has been found by the researchers in order to fight against the cancer cells that attack the immune system of the body. This has offered new hopes for treating ovarian cancer among women.

This antibody named AD5-10 attaches to the cancer cells weakening the resistance of the tumor cells to the body’s immune system. In addition, this antibody is found to be more effective for chemotherapy.

AD5-10 antibody decreases resistance of the cells to carboplatin, a common agent used in chemotherapy. The combined effect of this antibody along with carboplatin was more effective for treating cancer patients. Reports also revealed that the antibody is found to react in this manner only when the cell killers known as lymphocytes NK are present in the tumor cells during the same time.