Antibody

Antibody

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Month: May 2018

Antibodies for the Study of Immunology

Posted on May 25, 2018 in Uncategorized

Immunology encompasses the study of all aspects of the immune system. The study of immunology is clinically relevant because an increased understanding of how the immune system functions will allow researchers to develop better treatments for both infectious and autoimmune diseases. Immunological research can also be targeted toward finding ways to harness the immune system to protect against the development of various cancers. Various proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, interferons and interleukins, are involved the various pathways associated with the immune system.

Cytokines

Cytokines are soluble extracellular proteins that act as key modulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are composed of two major subfamilies, chemokines and interleukins, which act as chemotactic cytokines and mediators of leukocyte communication, respectively. Cytokines are released by leukocytes in response to stimuli and regulate many biological processes, including cell activation, cell migration, cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, angiogenesis, development and tissue repair.

Chemokines

Chemokines are a family of cytokines that have the ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby cells. Homeostatic chemokines are involved in controlling the migration of cells during tissue maintenance and development. These chemokines also participate in immune surveillance by directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes. Pro-inflammatory chemokines are induced by an immune response and recruit immune cells to sites of infection. Their release is stimulated by cytokines in response to bacterial infections, viruses and/or physically damaging agents.

Chemokines can be divided into four classes based on the arrangement of the conserved cysteine residues of the mature proteins. Members of the CC group, which contain two adjacent cysteines near the amino terminus, induce the migration of monocytes, as well as NK cells and dendritic cells. The CXC group contains two N-terminal cysteines separated by one amino acid and is involved in the migration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. C chemokines, the third group, contain one N-terminal cysteine and one downstream cysteine. Members of this group attract T cell precursors to the thymus. The final group, CX3C chemokines, contains three amino acids between two cysteines and serves as adhesion molecules.

Interferons

Interferons (IFNs) are a type of cytokine that facilitate communication between cells to trigger the immune system. These proteins are synthesized and released by host cells in response to either pathogens or tumor cells. In addition to their ability to interfere with viral replication, IFNs also activate immune cells and up-regulate antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. Ten distinct IFNs have been identified in mammals and are classified among three IFN classes, Type IFN, Type II IFN and Type III IFN.

Interleukins

Interleukins (ILs) are a large group of cytokines that mediate cell-to-cell communication. They display a wide spectrum of biological activities including cell activation, differentiation, proliferation and motility. The majority of interleukins are produced by T helper cells, as well as by monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. ILs promote the development and differentiation of T-, B- and hematopoietic cells.

A deeper understanding of the various functions of cytokines, chemokines, interferons and interleukins in the body’s defense against pathogens, as well as the development autoimmune diseases, may one day lead to the development of better treatments and possibly even cures for a variety of diseases. Antibodies against these various factors are vital to the study of immunology, and antibody manufacturers are designing product lines to address the needs of this growing research area.

Overcome Infertility – Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) In Conventional Perspective

Posted on May 18, 2018 in Uncategorized

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role in treating all kinds of disease and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Antinuclear antibody is defined as specific class of auto antibodies that have the ability to attack structures in the nucleus of cells instead of performing the normal antibody function. It can be detected through blood sample withdrawn from the patient’s vein.

2. Causes
a) Infection and inflammation
Infection and inflammation caused by bacteria or virus speeding up the body immune system function, but in some cases, bacteria and virus induce the immune system to produce antibodies which directed against the tissues of the body.
b) Medication

i) Phenytoin
Pheytoin may increase the risk of production of antinuclear antibody, leading to increasing the risk of malformations and birth defects.
ii) Antibotics
Long term uses of antibody may increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody as the medication causes abnormal reaction to the immune system.
iii) Methyldopa
The medication is used to dilate blood vessels for treating high blood pressure, but long term use of this type of medication may decrease the risk of immune disorder in production of antinuclear antibody.

c) Aging
As we age, the levels of antinuclear antibody increases and in some older adults (5% to 40%) may have mildly elevated levels caused by weakening immune function.
d) Diseases
Some diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may also increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody.

3. How antinuclear antibody effects infertility
Under normal conditions, when a woman becomes pregnant, the white blood cells in her uterus produce protective, blocking antibodies. In case of antinuclear antibody, the white blood cells recognize the fetus as a foreign invasion and attack it, leading to miscarriage.

4. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants,it is a purified preparation derived from animal tissue. It helps to increase the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss.
b) Aspirin
Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory and blood thinner agent, it helps to increase the blood circulating to the reproductive organs, thereby reducing the risk of antinuclear antibody attacking the fetus or the women reproductive tissues. It is recommendation to take 80 mg per day, which is equivalent to a baby aspirin. if necessary.

Overcome Infertility – What is Anti Thyroid Antibodies in Conventional Perspective

Posted on May 10, 2018 in Uncategorized

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometimes the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti thyroid antibodies affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition

Anti Thyroid Antibodies are defined as abnormal function of antibodies produced by immune system act directly against the thyroid gland. It is caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to abnormal production of certain antithyroid antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal, causing miscarriage by attacking the placental or fetal tissues.

2. Causes

a) Hypothyroidism
Study show that women with low levels of thyroid hormone have high levels antithyroid antibody compared with other women who do not.

b) Aging
We all know, as we age, the immune system is no longer function as it should, leading to infection and inflammation resulting in increasing the risk of over production of antithyroid antibody.

c) Infection and inflammation
Infection or inflammation thyroid gland or other part of the body may elevate the levels of antithyroid antibody as the antibody made by protein of the immune system become abnormal and attack the thyroid gland tissues

d) Medication.
Medication use such as cholestyramine, seizure medication and antibiotic may interferes with the absorption of levothyroxine or speeds the breakdown of levothyroxine, leading to hypothyroidism resulting in increasing the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

3. Treatments

a) Selenium supplement
Since the antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals, it also helps to increase immune system in regulating the production of our body antibody including antithyroid antibody.

b) Antithyroid medication
Antithyroid medication such as desiccated thyroid, eltroxin and synthroid help to increase the the levels of thyroid function by the thyroid gland thereby, affecting the immune system resulting in lessening the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

c) Lower levels of cholesterol
Some researcher found that decreasing the levels of cholesterol in the blood stream may help to reduce the risk of hypothyroidism thereby, reducing the risk of elevating the levels of antithyroid antibody

4. Side effects of the medication

a) Heart palpitations.
b) Nervousness.
c) Insomnia.
d) Shaking
e) Too much weight loss.
f) Osteoporosis if it is taken for a long time
g) Etc.

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