Antibody

Antibody

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Month: March 2018

BCL2 Antibody – Inducing Apoptosis

Posted on March 28, 2018 in Uncategorized

Bcl2 antibody – The Bcl2 gene plays an important role in a large assortment of cellular activities, in particular the regulation of cell death. This is facilitated by including or repressing apoptosis based on environmental stimuli.

Bcl2 plays an important role in the regulation of cell death, either inducing or repressing apoptosis based on environmental effects. Consequently, because of the apoptotic regulation, Bcl2 plays an important role in cancer research, cancer diagnostics and regulation of immune cells. BCL2 gene damage has been identified as a cause of a number of cancers, including melanoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer and certain types of leukemia.

A damaged BCL2 gene is also the cause of resistance to a number of cancer treatments. Therefore, Bcl2 antibody can be used in immunohistochemistry to distinguish cells that contain the target Bcl2 antigen. The antibodies usually react inside healthy tissues with B cells in the mantle zone, in addition to some T cells. In cancer tissues there is a substantial increase in the number of positive cells in follicular lymphoma and several other forms of cancer. On occasions, the presence or absence of Bcl2 staining in biopsies could perhaps be vital for the patient’s prognosis or the probability of a relapse.

The primary function of Bcl2 is to induce apoptosis; it does so by inducing the release of cytochrome c to begin the apoptotic cascade. Therefore, malfunctions in whichever of the Bcl2 gene or in the apoptotic cascade may possibly lead to damaged cells by missing the signal to shut down. Cancer possibly occurs as the result of an imbalance between cell death and cell growth. Anti-apoptotic protein expression and under expression of pro-apoptotic genes can, and often do, result in the lack of cell death that is characteristic of cancer. Apoptosis is very important in immune system regulation, destroying immune cells that recognize self-antigen, possibly aiding in the prevention of harmful autoimmune diseases such as Lupus and Type 1 diabetes.

The Bcl2 antibody can be used in IHC-P (immunohistochemistry) to distinguish cells that contain the target Bcl2 antigen. The antibodies usually react inside healthy tissues with B cells in the mantle zone, in addition to some T cells. Conversely, in cancer tissues there is a substantial increase in the number of positive cells in follicular lymphoma and several other forms of cancer. On occasions, the presence or absence of Bcl2 staining in biopsies could perhaps be vital for the patient’s prognosis or the probability of a relapse.

In a trial experiment the expression of Bcl2 antibody in skeletal muscles could potentially play a role on surviving muscle fibers. As the control muscles was generally positive in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm in type 2B fibers. This experiment was conducted by using 178 biopsied human pathologic muscles and 10 control muscles by the ABC process.

The antibody can be tested on a range of applications, for instance WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-ELISA. This is used to test the antibody on a large assortment of model species such as mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, pig, and Human.

Thyroid Antibodies and Graves’ Disease

Posted on March 20, 2018 in Uncategorized

Many people with Graves’ Disease actually have a negative test for thyroid antibodies. So while a positive test for thyroid antibodies, along with a positive Radioactive Iodine Uptake test will confirm you have this condition, one can’t rely on the thyroid antibodies blood test alone. So while some doctors will recommend a TPO or a different blood test to detect thyroid antibodies when they suspect someone has Graves’ Disease, others won’t recommend any of these blood tests at all.

What is the purpose of receiving a blood test for thyroid antibodies? Well, normally antibodies are formed to protect the body from foreign molecules, also known as antigens. With Graves’ Disease, which is an autoimmune thyroid condition, the antibodies attack its own thyroid gland. So tests for thyroid antibodies such as the TPO can help determine the presence of these antibodies, although as mentioned above, one can’t rely on these tests alone.

As a holistic healthcare professional who was personally diagnosed with Graves’ Disease, I can tell you that while I do consider the test for thyroid antibodies to be helpful, there are other more useful tests which will actually determine the cause of this autoimmune thyroid condition. After all, while it’s nice that there are tests to confirm you have Graves’ Disease, there are other tests which can help determine the cause of this condition. Although most endocrinologists and other doctors consider Graves’ Disease to be incurable, many people have had their health restored back to normal by following a natural treatment protocol.

Other Tests Which Can Determine The Cause Of Graves’ Disease

If you are looking to determine the cause of your condition, and avoid taking anti-thyroid drugs and/or receiving radioactive iodine, then in addition to the thyroid antibodies blood test and other thyroid blood tests which can help diagnose your condition, there are a few tests that can help determine the cause of your condition:

Test #1: Adrenal Stress Index (ASI). Such a test is useful to determine the state of the adrenal glands. Although this test measures a few different hormone levels, perhaps the most important values are the cortisol levels. Cortisol has many different functions in the body, and one of the more important functions is to regulate the blood sugar levels. When someone eats poorly over a long period of time or deals frequently with chronic stress, this in turn can weaken the adrenal glands, which will affect immunity. This in turn can lead to the development of an autoimmune thyroid condition. This was a very valuable test when I was diagnosed with Graves’ Disease, as both my early and late morning cortisol levels were low, which meant I needed additional adrenal support. I use the company Diagnos-Techs for this test, as they have a great reputation and haven’t let me down so far.

Test #2: Hair Mineral Analysis. A hair mineral analysis test can also be useful, although it tells us a different “story” than an ASI. This test will tell you what is happening at the cellular level, detecting deficiencies in minerals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and other minerals which also can affect thyroid health. Most endocrinologists would laugh at you if you told them you wanted to obtain such a test. But done by a quality lab, a hair mineral analysis can provide some valuable information to help determine the cause of your condition. Obviously a deficiency in one or more of these minerals isn’t only related to the cause of your autoimmune thyroid disorder, as these deficiencies can lead to numerous other conditions as well.

Test #3: Hormone Panel. I also use Diagnos-Techs for this test, as this is yet another saliva-based test, and it can help determine if you have a hormonal imbalance which is causing or contributing to your autoimmune thyroid condition. It measures the hormones estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and numerous other hormones which can be imbalanced and be causing or contributing to your condition.

It’s important to point out that it takes many years to develop Graves’ Disease. As a result, not only does it take time to develop a hormonal imbalance, adrenal fatigue, etc., but it takes time for these problems to lead to an autoimmune thyroid condition. And of course sometimes these don’t directly cause Graves’ Disease, but are instead contributing factors to this condition.

Which of these tests should you receive? It depends on numerous factors, and some holistic doctors will recommend that each of their patients receive all three of these tests initially. This isn’t necessarily a bad idea, as they all provide valuable information which can help determine the cause of Graves’ Disease. On the other hand, some holistic doctors will recommend only one or two of these tests based on the patient’s symptoms. So for example, if someone is having the symptoms of estrogen dominance, then the doctor will most likely recommend a hormone panel. If they are experiencing symptoms of adrenal fatigue, then chances are an Adrenal Stress Index will be recommended.

Using Tests To Follow Up On One’s Progress

In addition to using tests to help diagnose Graves’ Disease and determine the underlying cause of the condition, these tests can of course also be valuable in determining one’s progress when following a natural treatment protocol. When I was diagnosed with Graves’ Disease, it was a great feeling to see the thyroid blood tests which were once positive become negative again. It was equally gratifying to see the other tests normalize as well, such as the cortisol levels in the Adrenal Stress Index test.

How frequently should one use these tests as a followup procedure? There is really no exact answer to this, as I personally recommend that my patients receive follow up tests every 3 to 6 months. This pertains not only to the thyroid blood tests (TSH, free T3 & T4, thyroid antibodies, etc.), but also to the three tests I mentioned above. Some doctors will recommend that their patients receive them more frequently. Of course patient finances do play a part in this, as while I don’t see anything wrong with someone wanting to obtain these tests every 6 to 8 weeks, some patients simply can’t afford to do this.

Similarly, while I prefer that patients receive follow up tests every three months until they have normalized, some people can only afford to receive them every six months. And as long as they are improving from a symptomatic perspective, I don’t see a reason to test them too frequently. This of course isn’t to suggest that I only pay attention to the symptoms, as this definitely is not the case. However, a reduction in symptoms is a good sign that the patient is improving, and so if someone keeps on getting progressively better, then there isn’t as much of an urgency to repeat a test when compared to someone who isn’t getting good results.

On the other hand, many patients who are getting significant improvement from a symptomatic standpoint can’t wait to obtain follow up tests in order to see the improvement. I know this was the case with me, as I was excited to see the positive changes on the tests, as in my mind this really confirmed that the natural treatment methods were working. So even though I began experiencing an improvement in symptoms after only a few weeks of treatment, seeing the improvement in the follow up tests was what really got me excited about this.

Who Can’t Be Helped By Natural Treatment Methods?

While I have so far raved about the effectiveness of natural treatment methods, the truth is that not everyone with Graves’ Disease can have their health restored back to normal. However, most people can benefit from following a natural treatment protocol. After all, anti-thyroid drugs do nothing but manage the symptoms. And while this is sometimes necessary, especially when someone has a high pulse rate and/or palpitations, it is no cure for this condition. The same thing applies to radioactive iodine treatment, as while this will usually eliminate the hyperthyroid symptoms, the person will frequently become hypothyroid and will need to take thyroid hormone for the rest of their life.

Your best bet is to seek the advice of a competent natural endocrine doctor, preferably one who has a great deal of experience dealing with Graves’ Disease cases. Unfortunately there aren’t too many of these doctors out there, but there are some good holistic doctors which can recommend a protocol to help you restore your health back to normal.

In summary, thyroid antibodies can help determine whether someone has Graves’ Disease, but having this test alone isn’t enough to diagnose this condition, as well as to measure the progress of someone. Other tests need to be performed, but just remember that the tests commonly recommended by endocrinologists and other medical doctors don’t determine the actual cause of Graves’ Disease. In order to accomplish this, other tests are needed, and can be extremely valuable for anyone looking to restore their health through a natural treatment protocol.

Antiphospholipid Antibodies – Cause of Autoimmune Disease?

Posted on March 12, 2018 in Uncategorized

Antiphospholipid antibodies (or APA) are a type of protein produced by white blood cells. Antibodies serve to protect us from foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses. Sometimes when the immune system is activated and starts producing these antibodies, it may come to an abnormality, causing it to keep producing them even after the infection has been removed. That way, the antibodies will continue to attack the healthy cells in the body, causing damage and triggering other autoimmune disease.

After we look at some basic facts

Antiphospholipid antibodies – types and tests

Antiphospholipid antibodies cause the narrowing of blood vessels and blood clotting (or thrombosis). Antiphospholipid binds to phospholipid (fat derivates, lipids containing phosphorus, composed of fatty acids and a simple molecule). There are a few kinds of antiphospholipid antibodies, which are measured in order to make a diagnosis:

  • Lupus anticoagulant – antibodies against phospholipids that prevent blood clotting. These are measured directly from the plasma, by Russell viper venom time (RVVT) and the Kaolin cephalin clotting test.
  • Anticardiolipin antibody – antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases; measured by a procedure called ELISA.
  • Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 – predictors of arterial thrombosis. This test is used if the first two tests (for lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies) were negative.
  • Sometimes anti-prothrombin and antimitochondrial antibodies are measured as well.

Antiphospholipid antibodies – treatments
High levels of these antibodies are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). Usually tests need to be repeated several times before the full diagnosis is given, because sometimes they can show false negative results (especially during the thrombosis). Most people, who test positively on the antiphospholipid antibodies tests, do not require any special treatment.

Antiphospholipid antibodies – who should get treatment?
However, patients who have an IgG anticardiolipin antibody of a moderate to high quantity are considered high risk and should get treatment. IgG anticardiolipin antibody is an important predictor of thrombosis and pregnancy complications. Treatments used, include:

  • Aspirin is most commonly prescribed in low doses to all patients that require treatment and is recommended to be taken during pregnancy.
  • Anticoagulation therapy with Coumadin, for patients with thrombosis.
  • Antimalarials (e.g. hydroxychloroquin), for patients with lupus. They also have antiplatelet effects.
  • Heparin is used before a surgery, biopsy, during pregnancy and six weeks after the childbirth.
  • Corticosteroids are administered from the second trimester during pregnancy, in moderate doses.

Antiphospholipid antibodies can be found even in healthy people; and it is not completely known why these antibodies are produced in most cases. Sometimes they may be triggered by an infection of certain drugs. Presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood does not mean a person is going to develop an illness, provided a healthy life style.

The presence of these proteins is now pinpointed as one of the main potential factors in many autoimmune conditions, but as we mentioned some news in the field are offering hope to people crippled by autiimmunity. I am talking about a holistic protocll known as the Norton protocol.

Learn more by visiting the home page of Norton protocol as well as get a more detailed information about antiphospholipid antibodies.

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