Antibody

Antibody

Monoclonal Antibodies – For The Treatment Of Various Diseases

Posted on November 12, 2018 in Uncategorized

Monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers. They are mainly involved in immunotherapy. Clinical study is conducting on various monoclonal antibodies and other related proteins. Many of these antibodies are being approved for diseases like inflammation and cancer. A lot of researches are conducting to create monoclonal antibodies that are able to cure various diseases.

Some of the diseases cured by these antibodies include:

• Various types of cancers
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Tumors
• Multiple sclerosis
• Lymphoma

What Is Antibody Screening and Phage Display?

Antibody screening is the process used for identifying productive cell lines. This will help to minimize the cost of downstream processing steps. Early identification of productive cell lines will enhance the success in scale up activities. Phage display screening process is mainly used for the identifying high affinity antibodies or peptides. Following are some of the important uses of phage display:

• Used for screening protein interaction
• Help to analyze the mechanism or functioning of a protein
• One of the important techniques used in protein engineering.
• Considered as a tool in medicine or drug discovery
• Help to determine tumor antigens

Function of Antibodies

The immune system of our body is capable of generating certain antibodies. These antibodies will attach foreign substances called antigens and neutralize or destroy them. If our body is exposed to a bacteria or virus, then it will get rid of infection by producing antibodies. Antibodies are considered as the natural defensive substances. They are generally produced by the B cell of the immune system. They help in the recognition of foreign antibodies and then stimulate immune response to them. Antigen presenting cells are involved in adaptive immune response.

Important Medications Using Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies can be used in different forms of therapy. They are used for blocking certain cell receptors and also for destroying malignant tumor cells. There are also variations within the treatment procedures. These types of treatment mainly include medications like Bexxar, Herceptin and Rituxan. Bexxar contains a radioactive iodine molecule and so it does not have a naked form. This medicine has some negative effects like fever, shakes or chills. Medication involving Herceptin is specific for destroying cancer cells in the breast. Treatment procedure that involves Rituxan is very much effective in treating various types of lymphomas, especially Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Various Aspects of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

Monoclonal antibody therapy is quite effective and safe for certain patients. This treatment is not suitable for routine clinical setting because it have to be tailored to each individual patient. This technology is effective in creating antibodies against certain antigens present on the tumor surfaces. These are laboratory produced substances which are able to produce anti-tumor effects. They have been used with radioactive particles or toxins for killing cells. They are mainly used for binding molecule called tumor necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is the main cause of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Monoclonal proteins called Remicade and Humira are TNF inhibitors.

Overcome Infertility – Treating Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome in Conventional Perspective

Posted on November 4, 2018 in Uncategorized

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Anti phospholipid antibody is lupuslike syndrome and is defined as a condition which causes blood clotting in the arteries or veins including Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolopin antibody. Some women may have anti phospholipid antibody but does show any symptom of immune antibody disorder.

2. How anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome affects fertility
a) Nutrient deficiency
As the syndrome progress, it causes blood thicken that interferes with function of blood in transportation nutrients to ovaries and uterine lining, making difficult for fertility and causing miscarriage.

b) Placenta
Some researchers believe that anti-phospholipid antibody may causes microscopic blood clot in
the blood vessels in the placenta, leading to miscarriage and poor fetus growth.

c) Recurrent pregnancy loss
Study show that women who have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome and sufer loss of pregnancy will like to sufer again, if pregnancy does occur.

3. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants, it helps to prevent the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels, thereby increasing the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss. Heparin can be injected through the skin or given into a vein by intravenous infusion.

b) Prednisone
Prednisone is defined as a member of drugs called steroids, it is normally used to prevent the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also has an ability to reduce the function of anticardiolipin antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant, thereby, lessening the risk of blood clot and increasing the chance of fertility.

c) Low of asprin
Sometime low dose of aspirin may be added to prenisone or heparin to increase the function of the medication in preventing blood clot, but aspirin is unlikely to be used alone as a medication in anticoagulation.

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Anti-Mitochondrial Antibodies in Autism – A Marker for Treatment?

Posted on October 29, 2018 in Uncategorized

Recent focus on new treatments for Autistic Spectrum disorders have zeroed in heavily on the immune component of this disease. Physicians around the world are becoming more and more convinced that Autism may be triggered by some autoimmune process leading to damage of the body’s own neurological system.

Quite a few studies have pointed to aberrant immune markers found more commonly in autistic children compared to normal healthy children, but most of these markers have never made it to the masses, instead their access was strictly for research.
However that now has changed.

A few years ago researchers discovered that a protein called Neurotensin was found extremely elevated in Autistic Children. They showed that this peptide released mitochondrial DNA into the extracellular space (outside the cell), which acted as an autoimmune trigger.

The mitochondria is basically the “power house” of the cell. If its function becomes abnormal, the cells no longer have the energy to function properly, thus leading to either cell death or severely limited function. Either way the cells with the damaged mitochondrial don’t function well. Neurons are very sensitive to mitochondrial damage, having a smaller amount compared to other cells requiring large amounts of energy, such as muscles.

The mitochondria has its own DNA content separate from our own cells. If this mitochondrial DNA was released somehow into the extracellular space, the body would then react to it as if it was foreign, like a virus or bacterial, creating an immune response. Well that’s exactly what Neurotensin was causing. Studies showed that when Neurotensin was elevated mitochondrial DNA was found outside in the extracellular space.

Recently in the Journal of Neuroinflammation researchers took it a step further. Since Neurotensin is not commercially available they decided to test markers that were. They also wanted to determine if this extracellular mitochondrial DNA was actually causing an immune response. This way parents may be able to definitely decide if their child’s immune system was attacking the mitochondria.

Enter anti-mitochondrial antibody type II, a marker used for primary biliary chirrosis.

Researchers found that this antibody was significantly elevated in Autistic children as compared to children not affected with Autism, effectively demonstrating that many children suffering from Autism were reacting to their own mitochondria. They postulated that this reaction was affecting multiple aspects of the immune system, laying the ground work for potential damage or excessive inflammation.

This is a great study, showing a possible cause and effect process. Anti-mitochondrial antibody is available to test for, with most insurance companies covering it.

If your child has never been tested for the antibody, it may be worthwhile to have your physician order it. Having knowledge that maybe your child is suffering an autoimmune process is huge. It definitely will be a marker I use and will change how I treat my patients.

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