Antibody Engineering For Specific Application

Posted on April 15, 2018 in Uncategorized

Nowadays pharmaceutical and medicinal biotechnology is an improved section of biotechnology. Production of different developed drugs, vaccines, artificial insulin, etc. are achievements of this section. Antibody engineering is one of the most developed parts of medicinal biotechnology. If an antibody is modified due to a specific application through recombinant DNA technology then it is called antibody engineering. It is also called hybrid antibody or recombinant antibody.

Some steps which are essential for doing antibody engineering are-

1. Development of a design that will prepare the antibody to be used for a specific application that means by which it will bind with a specific antigen.

2. Accumulation of all the DNA sequences that would generate this antibody into a suitable expression vector

3. Introduction of a vector in a myeloma cell line so that the modified antibody gene can express itself

4. Mass culture of the transfected clones containing modified antibody genes of myeloma cell line

5. Harvesting the produced recombinant antibodies. But it should be noticed that the myeloma cell line would not produce any antibody of its own.

Monoclonal antibody that is being used widely as therapeutic agent has been produced by using antibody engineering. For producing monoclonal antibody a myeloma cell line is fused with spleen cell line of mouse which has already immunized with the desired antigen. In this HAT medium is used as culture medium because it contain hypoxanthine, thymine and aminopterin. Unfused hybridoma cell cannot grow in HAT medium due to lack of HGPRT and unfused spleen cell cannot grow infinitely because they have limited life span. After producing monoclonal antibody it is purified by western blotting system. Now a day’s monoclonal antibodies are widely being used in cancer treatment. It is also used for treating autoimmune diseases like infliximab, adalimumab.

Prostate Cancer Antibody – Promising Treatment For Your Cancer

Posted on April 9, 2018 in Uncategorized

A number of researchers have revealed an antibody which will bond with prostate cancer tissue and instigate direct cell death while injected into mice. The discovery would nearly be a treatment to cancer of prostate if outcomes carry over to humans.

It is one of the principal diseases frightening men nowadays. The cancer is #2 on the listing of most widespread cancers in men. More than the past 150 years lots of various treatments have been developed as part of research for prostate cancer treatment.

The study published in PNAS {the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science} stated that the antibody, called F77, was discovered to bond more readily with tissues and cells of cancerous prostate than with benign tissue and cells, and to help the death of cancerous tissue.

Even so, the study showed that it did not be intended for normal tissue or tumor tissues in other areas of the body including the colon, kidney, pancreas, skin cervix, lung, or bladder.

Researchers wrote the antibody “proves promising potential for diagnosis and treatment of the cancer, particularly for androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer,” which frequently extends to the bones and is not easy to treat.

Antibodies are also already being employed to deal with diseases like lymphoma and breast cancer. It is said that until now there has been no successful antibody therapy for cancer of prostate. However, any research team has produced an antibody named F77 which looks so potential. In spite of the research being at a very early step, it brings up the hope of an effectual treatment for advanced prostate cancer.


What are Antibodies

Posted on April 3, 2018 in Uncategorized

Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins are large y-shaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens such as viruses and bacteria.

In mammals there are five main types of antibodies including: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. There are 4 IgG and 2 IgA subtypes present in humans.

Antibodies are created by plasma cells which are derived from the B-cells in the immune system. Due to the fact that antibodies exist freely in the bloodstream or bound to cell membranes, they are said to be part of the humoral immune system.
Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen. This is because the two tips of its “Y” are different to each antibody are allow different antibodies to bind to different foreign antigens. When the antibody binds to a bacteria, it tags the microbe or virus for attack by the immune system such as killer T-cells. Sometimes, antibodies can directly neutralize the foreign body. The production of antibodies by B-cells is the main function of the humoral immune system.

Autoimmune disorders can usually be traced to antibodies which bind the body’s own proteins or epitopes, and these types of antibodies can be detected through serological blood tests. Due to the amazing specificity of antibodies, they have some important practical applications in both medicine for the detection of HIV and other viruses in blood, and in research to purify and detect proteins in the study of molecular biology. For example, currently medicine is using biotechnologically designed monoclonal antibodies which work as an antibody therapy. These methods are being employed recently and are the result of numerous clinical trials in a number of diseases including cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis.